Modern electronic devices would be much different than they are today if it were not for the printed circuit board (PCB). It can be easy to overlook the significance of PCBs and instead focus on the latest and greatest chips mounted on them, but if not for the PCB, we would not have electronic devices that are so compact and inexpensive, or circuits that are so reliable and consistently manufactured. These boards are often very complex, so naturally errors can be introduced at any stage, from design to production. And an error can have serious consequences, from frying all the chips on it to starting a fire, and of course the cost of shipping a flawed product can be massive in terms of both dollars and damaged reputation.
This is a companion discussion topic for the original entry at https://www.edgeimpulse.com/blog/whats-your-problem-identifying-pcb-defects-with-machine-learning